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how long are human intestines

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Update 2020-01-20 22:52:04
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Classical conditioning process

Terms to know

  • Unconditioned stimulus. This is the thing that triggers an automatic response. Food is the unconditioned stimulus in Pavlov’s dog experiment.
  • Unconditioned response. This is what response naturally occurs when you experience the unconditioned stimulus, such as salivating from the food.
  • Conditioned stimulus. This is considered a neutral stimulus. When you’re presented with it over and over before the unconditioned stimulus (e.g., food), it will start to evoke the same response. The bell before the food is the conditioned stimulus.
  • Conditioned response. This is the acquired response to the conditioned stimulus (the bell), which is often the same response as the unconditioned response. So, the dogs salivated for the bell the same way they salivated for the food in front of them.
  • Extinction. This term is used when you start presenting the conditioned stimulus (the bell) over and over but without the unconditioned stimulus (the food). Over time, the dogs would unlearn their conditioning that the bell means food is coming.
  • Generalization. This refers to when you can generalize similar things and respond the same way. Dogs began salivating at sounds similar to bells because they were generalizing what they learned.
  • Discrimination. The opposite of generalization, this is our ability to tell the difference when something is similar but not identical, so it won’t produce the same response. A horn sound, for instance, wouldn’t make the dogs salivate.

Stages of Pavlovian conditioning

Before conditioning

Before conditioning is when the unconditioned stimulus and unconditioned response come into play. This is the natural response that wasn’t taught.

For instance, food produces salivating, or a stomach virus produces nausea.

At this point, the conditioned stimulus is still called the neutral stimulus because it currently has no effect.

During conditioning

We begin to associate the neutral stimulus with the unconditioned response.

For instance, you may associate a specific type of food with a stomach virus, or the bell ringing before getting food may be associated with receiving food.

After conditioning

Once you’ve learned to associate the conditioned stimulus with the unconditioned response, it becomes the conditioned response.

So, the specific type of food now produces nausea (even if it wasn’t necessarily what caused the stomach virus), and the bell creates salivation.

In this way, you’ve unconsciously learned to associate the new stimulus (whether situation, object, person, etc.) with the response.

Try it for yourself

The Office” has a great (and funny!) example of classical conditioning:

There are many ways you can experiment with conditioning in your daily life. Here are some tips to consider:

  • Create a good environment with nice lighting and clean surfaces for your home office to make it a more positive working environment. A good working environment can condition you to get more work done.
  • Create a bedtime routine to condition yourself to sleep earlier. You can do this by dimming lights and avoiding screens 30 minutes before bed. This can create an atmosphere of sleep.
  • Train a pet to do basic obedience behaviors or special tricks by asking them to do the task and rewarding them in the same way over and over. You can even use Pavlov’s trick and try a certain bell to let them know when dinner is coming (and that they should sit and wait patiently).
  • Teach good behaviors to children by rewarding them with a small treat or new toy. If they struggle with sharing, reward them when they make an effort to share.

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